Gas Chromatography

Chromatography refers to a method used to detach chemical substances and varies based on different partitioning behaviors between a stationary phase and a flowing mobile phase for separating elements in a mix.

The sample is moved by a stream of moving gas through a tube that contains evenly separated solid, or could be coated with a liquid film. Gas chromatography is one of the most critical tools in chemistry because of its ease, highly effective nature, and sensitivity. It is most commonly utilized to carry out qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, to purify compounds, and to decide on certain thermochemical constants.

Likewise, gas chromatography is widely employed in the automatic monitoring of industrial processes. Take, for example, gas streams that are regularly analyzed and adjusted with manual or automatic responses to correct undesirable differences.

There are several routine analyses that are achieved quickly in environmental and similar fields. For example, there are several countries with certain monitor points that serve the purpose of constantly assessing emission levels of gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxides. Additionally, gas chromatography can be used in analyzing pharmaceutical products.

The technique for gas chromatography launches with introducing the test mixture into a stream of inert gas, typically a gas that works as a carrier gas such as argon or helium. Samples that are in the liquid state are first vaporized before they are injected into the stream of carrier gases. After this, the gas stream moves through the packed column that contains elements of the sample moving at speeds that are based on the level of interaction between each constituent with the stationary nonvolatile phase. Those parts that have a more significant interaction with the stationary phase are slowed more and thus separate from those with a lesser interaction. As these components begin to be eliminated out of the column with a solvent, they can be measeured by a detector and/or gathered for more analysis.

There are two main types of gas chromatography: gas-solid chromatography (GSC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The first, gas-solid chromatography, is centered around the solid stationary phase, during which retention of analytes occurs as a result of physical adsorption. Gas-liquid chromatography is often used when detaching ions that can be dissolved in a solvent. If it comes into contact with a second solid or liquid phase, the different solutes in the sample solution will interact with the other phase to certain degrees that are different based on differences in adsorption, exchange of ions, partitioning or size. These changes give the mixture components the ability to separate from each other when they use these difference to modify their transport times of the solutes through a column.

Gas Chromatography with Carrier Gases

When selecting a carrier gas, the selection depends on the sort of detector being utilized and the parts that are being determined. Carrier gases used in chromatographs should be of the highest purity and chemically inert towards the sample. In order to eliminate water or other impurities, the carrier gas system may have a molecular sieve.

The most prevalent injection systems used to introduce gas samples are the gas sampling valve and injection via syringe. Both liquid and gas samples have the ability to be injected with a syringe. When in its most simple form, the sample is initially injected into and vaporized in a heated chamber, then moved to the column. When packed columns are utilized, the first section of the column is typically utilized as an injection chamber and warmed to a proper temperature separately. With capillary columns a small partvof the vaporized sample is transferred to the column from a separate injection chamber; this is known as split-injection. This process is employed when attempting to keep the sample volume from overloading the column.

A technique known as on-column injection can be employed for capillary gas chromatography when trace components could be found in the sample. In on-column injection, the liquid sample injected with a syringe immediately into the column. After this, the solvent can evaporate and a concentration of the sample components occurs. In gas samples, the concentration is created by a method referred to as cryo focusing. In this process, the sample components are concentrated and separated from the matrix by condensation in a cold-trap prior to the chromatography process.

Finally, there is also a method referred to as loop-injection, and it is commonly used in process control where liquid or gas samples flow constantly through the sample loop. The sample loop is filled with a syringe or an automatic pump in an off-line position. Next, the sample is moved from the loop to the column by the mobile phase, sometimes containing a concentration step.

Whether you’re in search of specialty gases to be employed in gas chromatography, or any other industry that employs specialty gases, PurityPlus has a wide variety of specialty gas products to meet your need. We have a large selection of specialty gases and specialty gas equipment, along with the resources and experts on hand to provide assistance in any areas you may need. For additional information, browse our online catalog or via email at or at 612-581-9889.